Innergation.com https://innergation.com Multipurpose Drip Tube Hanger Mon, 03 Sep 2018 22:31:53 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.3.2 UV Inhibitor Info https://innergation.com/2017/04/19/uv-inhibitor-info/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=uv-inhibitor-info Wed, 19 Apr 2017 00:15:10 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=483

The following information was gleaned from SpecialChem

Uvasorb® HA-88FD

Technical DataSheet | Supplied by 3V

Hindered amine based additive. Acts as an UV light stabilizer. Provides long term thermal stabilization to polymers along with UV light stability. Also offers low volatility and minimal migration rate, high extraction and gas fading resistance, high thermal stability preventing decomposition as well as volatilization even at elevated temperatures and high antioxidant activity. Exhibits excellent synergism with a broad range of additives used in polymer formulation. Recommended for thin layer applications such as fibers, films, tapes and also for automotive, drums, bottles, crates, sheets, toys, marine and garden furniture applications. Compatible with polyolefins, olefin copolymers like EP, EVA, polyacetals, polyamides, polyurethanes, styrenic polymers, elastomers and polypropylene-elastomer blends. In general, the range of dosage is 0.10 – 0.6 % for PP fibers, 0.05 – 0.4 % for PP and HDPE tapes.

Uvasorb® HA-88FD Product details

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Effective subsurface drip irrigation https://innergation.com/2017/03/02/effective-subsurface-drip-irrigation/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=effective-subsurface-drip-irrigation Thu, 02 Mar 2017 18:25:32 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=406 In our quest to come up with the most efficient drip system for vineyards, our INNERGATION DRIP TUBE HANGER solves a large part of the problem: placing the drip in the correct position and keeping it there.  The next equally important part is getting the water underground to avoid loss due to evaporation and runoff on hillside vineyards. Two research projects advocate making a depression/ hole underneath the emitter and filling them with a porous medium. Either compost or sand was used to allow the water to quickly translocate beneath the surface reducing evaporation.  Both studies prove that facilitating water movement subsurface retains moisture and an improved soil profile for root growth.  These projects require the water source to be stationary which our drip tube hanger provides.  

The 1st research project compares the use of traditional surface drip in contrast with drilling holes of about 8” and 16” and filling them with either sand or compost and analyzing effectiveness.  This project demonstrates reduced surface moisture and improved water content subsurface.  Soil profile illustrations in results provide clarity. Please read the abstract below and follow link for the complete research project.

 

Effective moisture conservation method for heavy soil under drip irrigation

June, 2014 Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal Open access at http://www.cigrjournal.org Vol. 16, No.2 1

Harby Mostafa

(Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University, 13736 Moshtohor, Kaliobya, Egypt)

Abstract:

Drip irrigation is one of the most efficient systems in delivering water to the plant root zone but it still allows relatively high evaporation from the saturated zone that develops under emitters especially in clay soils of low infiltration rates .Initial lateral water movement may take a long time in such soils thus exposing surface water to high evaporation. The vertical columns method induces water infiltration keeping the actual water surface deeper in the soil profile. The objective of this research is to compare between the effect of vertical compost and sand columns on the distribution of water in the root zone and the potential for water saving in clay soil. A field experiment was conducted and the results indicated that the vertical mulch allowed more water to remain in the soil profile thereby increasing the irrigation efficiency and has a significant effect on water storage at the 20-60 cm depth. Over time, as the soil is drying up, the significance of the vertical mulch factor increases. Considering the root zone profile as a whole, the compost columns (20 and 40 cm) as well as the 40 cm vertical sand column had higher water content than the surface irrigation

 

The 2nd research project measures water loss due to evaporation.  Chunks of undisturbed soil about 1 cubic yard are extracted and weighed before and after irrigation with traditional surface drip and sand tube columns.  The results prove with 95% certainly a water savings of between 33% and 40% with the sand tube columns.  Please read the abstract below and follow link for the complete research project.

EVAPORATION REDUCTION POTENTIAL IN AN UNDISTURBED SOIL IRRIGATED WITH SURFACE DRIP AND SAND TUBE IRRIGATION M. Meshkat, R. C. Warner, S. R. Workman

ABSTRACT:

The efficiency of drip irrigation is highly dependent on evaporation losses occurring from the constantly saturated soil beneath emitters. Advent of subsurface drip irrigation is in part an approach to curb this inefficiency. An irrigation method, Sand Tube Irrigation (STI), is proposed to increase the efficiency of “Normal” surface applied drip Irrigation (NI method) on permanent tree crops without the need for burying the irrigation tubing. The sand tube consists of removing a soil core beneath the emitter and filling the void with coarse sand. A weighing lysimeter was constructed in the laboratory and instrumented to directly measure temporal evaporation from large, undisturbed soil columns, 0.7 m in diameter and 0.8 m in height. Experiments were performed on six replicated soil monoliths to compare the two methods. The results indicated that, for four consecutive days after irrigation, there was a significant difference at the 95% confidence level between evaporation occurring from the NI and STI methods. After four days of evaporation, comparison of water contents indicated that a higher amount of water existed between the depths of 0.2 to 0.55 m in the STI versus the NI method. Although drainage occurred from the macropore structure of the undisturbed soil monoliths, the STI method showed potential in retaining more water in the micropore structure of the lower depths, that would be available for plant use rather than potential evaporation. Keywords. Evaporation reduction, Drip irrigation, Microirrigation, Efficiency, Soil monolith.

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Research articles for water saving and soil health https://innergation.com/2017/02/23/research-articles-for-water-saving-and-soil-health/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=research-articles-for-water-saving-and-soil-health Thu, 23 Feb 2017 20:20:24 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=386
  • Evaporation reduction potential in an undisturbed soil irrigated with surface drip and sand tube irrigation
  • This study tests if filling a 4″ dia. x 6″ cylindrical hole under an emitter with course sand to direct water underground will reduce surface evaporation: study results in 33-40% reduction.

    This study compares the use of traditional surface drip in contrast with drilling holes of about 8″ and 16″ and filling them with either sand or compost and analyzing effectiveness.  This project demonstrates reduced surface moisture and improved water content subsurface.

    This study tests if using the commercially available deep drip subsurface irrigation spike can save water while maintaining a viable crop.

    This study discusses the importance of irrigation use in the offseason.

    This study tests how adding different sources of carbon to the soil influences soil microbial properties.

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of woody biochar amendment (yellow pine from pyrolysis at 400 degrees C) on the water holding capacity of loamy sand soil with different mixture rates….High percentage mixtures of biochar increase water holding capacity.

     

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    Innergation Technique https://innergation.com/2017/02/15/in-depth-discussionresearch-articles/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=in-depth-discussionresearch-articles Wed, 15 Feb 2017 23:26:37 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=358

    INNERGATION®/ Saving water and a healthier vineyard

    Do to the ongoing drought, water is in short supply now and probably in the future. With recent legislation signed by Governor Brown in California requiring groundwater monitoring, regulation could be in the near future. While drip systems are more efficient than others such as furrow or overhead, there is still much unnecessary waste due to poor infiltration, evaporation and hillside runoff. Surface drip also encourages shallow roots and weed growth. Subsurface irrigation is more efficient than surface drip, but it has problems such as clogged emitters, possible root intrusion, and not visible for inspection.

    The Innergation® system approaches the problem from a different perspective. The specially designed drip tube hanger directs water away from the emitter several ways via spaghetti tube. The INNERGATION® DRIP CLIP in addition to suspending the drip tube allows water from 1 or 2 emitters via spaghetti tubes to be moved away from the vine encouraging longer root growth. For closely spaced vines, one drip tube hanger could support 2 spaghetti tubes. To reduce hillside runoff, a loop can be made with the 2 underneath holders so water can be directed to the upper side of the vine. The following thoughts would be more costly the 1st. year but could bring long term benefits in increased yield, less water and chemical use and healthier vines. It is then recommended making a depression or using perforated pipe to direct water underground. Moving water away from the emitter and running drip system will ease digging and may reduce root damage as they are likely concentrated under the emitter. Making a depression about the width and depth of a shovel would hold about 2 ½ gal. Filling the depression with compost helps vine nutrition and keeps out undesirable material. The porous texture of compost allows infiltration reducing evaporation. Mixing biochar with compost could add increased water retention characteristics. Gypsum or Lime could also be added to the mix to correct for pH. During each irrigation cycle, the depression with compost is filled and consequently drains afterward allowing atmosphere to replace the water. The compost would gradually be integrated into the soil, but the biochar would likely settle to the bottom of the depression, further positioning it for better water retention. With biochar in the bottom it may help prevent water from descending below the root zone. This makes room for more compost/ biochar to be added to the depression. Studies have shown that compost along with many different amendments can break down clay soils and increase permeability. Fertigation amendment use may be reduced as they are more quickly assimilated into the soil? An alternate method of subsurface irrigation is to use perforated pipe vertically in the ground. This would be especially helpful for hillside locations. A larger pipe 6” can be used in shorter lengths as it holds more water. A 3” or 4”size can be used for deeper penetration.

    Soil wetting pattern

    Undisturbed soil with large surface wetting

    Soil wetting pattern

    9” deep hole filled with compost with small surface wetting

    When smaller size is used, it may be more difficult to align the hole under the drip. The 6” pipe is easier to fill with compost. For more difficult hillside locations, the INNERGATION® PIPE CLIP is available to connect the spaghetti tube directly to the pipe. Soil texture may determine the length of perforated pipe used: heavy soils a longer piece; more porous soils, a shorter piece.

    With these methods, water is directed into the soil. This will encourage deeper root

    growth and make the vine less susceptible to weather fluctuations. Deeper root growth makes vines less susceptible to a number of diseases that prosper near the surface. As water is deposited directly into the soil, it is more readily available for root uptake; important for anticipated heat spikes and allows more control of the vine post veraision? Depending on the porosity of the soil and the run cycle of the drip system, surface moisture will be kept to a minimum; also reducing weed growth. With hillside vineyards, the texture of the soil is often vastly different from one location to another. Innergation® allows for working with vines on an individual basis via depression, pipe length; emitter output and amendments. Innergation could be easily adaptable to organic vineyards reducing labor for weed control and fewer amendments.
    A good idea only has merit if it is financially viable. Through trial and error, strategies have been developed to reduce labor to a minimum. A hole can be augured in about 10 seconds. Rocky or dry soil will require more time. The perforated pipe can be inserted in about another 10 seconds if desired. A specially designed stand is available from Adams Knoll to cut the perforated pipe quickly, either in the shop or on site in the vineyard. A pressure washer can make a hole in about 15 to 20 seconds. Another method of using a pressure washer is to outline a circle or square about 10” in diameter or a square and penetrate about 4 to 6”. A shovel can then easily extract a large chunk of soil. Making the hole with a pressure washer has the added advantage that there is less chance of damaging a pipe that might be in the ground. An irrigation cycle could then fill the depression and then it will be easier to dig deeper. A tractor with a side mounted auger is another alternative. The side of the hole should be inspected for glazing after auguring as it might affect permeability? . Disclaimer
    The thoughts expressed above have come from research and experimentation from Rick Adams and are subject to correction.

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    Filling the Depression https://innergation.com/2017/02/15/filling-the-depression/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=filling-the-depression Wed, 15 Feb 2017 23:15:17 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=356 What to fill the depression with?

    Depending on the soil type and pH., different amendments could be used to aid in healthy soil microbial populations, vine health and water retention capabilities. Compost would be the likely first choice due to affordability and beneficial nutritional aspects, porosity and water retention abilities. The depression does allow for custom blends to treat individual vines or blocks with different nutritional needs.

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    High Pressure Water https://innergation.com/2017/02/15/high-pressure-water/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=high-pressure-water Wed, 15 Feb 2017 23:07:09 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=354

    As part of my vineyard was planted with high pressure water; I have tried this method also for making depressions. One advantage is that you are not restricted to a round hole and there is no danger of glazing. A deep hole is more difficult to make. I have tried cutting a kerf about 10” square and 4” to 6” deep then using a shovel to extract the chunk of dirt. In porous soil, this may be sufficient? After the chunk is removed, the process can be repeated for more depth. It takes about 10 to 20 seconds to make the square kerf. This can be done in the summer as the high pressure will still cut through dry soil. I built a high pressure tank trailer that produces 4000 psi. And 4 gal/min. This may be a problem in wet soil as a tank of water is very heavy? 300 gallons weighs 2400 lbs. plus the weight of the unit.

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    Shovel https://innergation.com/2017/02/15/shovel/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=shovel Wed, 15 Feb 2017 23:05:10 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=352

    A depression can be made with a shovel. The diameter and depth of a shovel would equal about 2 ½ Gallon. Soil composition and wetness will determine how efficient this is? Those with experience planting vines in volume could add much to this discussion.

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    Tractor Mounted Auger https://innergation.com/2017/02/15/tractor-mounted-auger/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=tractor-mounted-auger Wed, 15 Feb 2017 22:59:33 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=350

    A tractor side mounted auger would remove the human element and be much faster. I did purchase a side mounted and it worked fairly well; unfortunately I did not get a heavy duty unit and it broke beyond repair. Hopefully with the input from those of you with experience replanting, a good heavy duty unit can be recommended? Auguring should be done when the soil is wet as dry soil causes excessive wear to the auger bit. A side note about auguring. I did learn from Richard Thomas, the founder of the viticultural program at Santa Rosa Community College that auguring or also rotatilling can cause glazing in clay soil and reduce water movement.

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    Compost Depression https://innergation.com/2017/02/15/compost-depression/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=compost-depression Wed, 15 Feb 2017 22:43:46 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=342

    More recent attempts have focused on making a depression about 9” deep and about 9” wide. Those numbers were chosen as this would hold about 2 ½ gallons of water; enough for about 4 hours of irrigation with ½ gal emitter. Filling the depression largely with compost which is porous allows the water to descend to the bottom of the hole and fill from there. Various other amendments could be added for vine nutrition and water retention.

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    One Man Auger https://innergation.com/2017/02/15/338-2/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=338-2 Wed, 15 Feb 2017 22:19:43 +0000 https://innergation.com/?p=338

    One Man Auger My 1st attempt to get water deeper in the ground was to drill a hole with a one man gas auger and install perforated pipe. Soil characteristics determine the effectiveness of this method. In rocky soil there is increased danger of the auger catching on a rock and causing rotation and possible injury. It is also a tiring operation which could increase danger. This idea has been largely abandoned (See Adams Knoll Black Hole Irrigation on youtube).

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